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過去完成時 

1、概念:

表示過去的過去。其構成是had +過去分詞構成。 那時以前  那時 現在        

2、用法 

a. 在told, said, knew, heard, thought等動詞后的賓語從句。 She said (that) she had never been to Paris. 

b. 狀語從句 在過去不同時間發生的兩個動作中,發生在先,用過去完成時;發生在后,用一般過去時。 When the police arrived, the thieves had run away. 
c. 表示意向的動詞,如hope, wish, expect, think, intend, mean, suppose等,用過去完成時表示"原本…,未能…" We had hoped that you would come, but you didn't.  

過去完成時的時間狀語before, by, until , when, after, once, as soon as。 

例句:He said that he had learned some English before. By the time he was twelve, Edison had began to make a living by himself. Tom was disappointed that most of the guests had left when he arrived at the party.   


典型例題  

The students ___ busily when Miss Brown went to get a book she ___ in the office.  
A. had written, left B,were writing, has left  C. had written, had left D. were writing, had left

答案D. "把書忘在辦公室"發生在"去取書"這一過去的動作之前,因此"忘了書"這一動作發生在過去的過去,用過去完成時。句中when表示的是時間的一點,表示在"同學們正忙于……"這一背景下,when所引導的動作發生。因此 前一句應用過去進行時。 
注意: had no … when     還沒等…… 就…… had no sooner… than  剛…… 就…… He had no sooner bought the car than he sold it.


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